A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is an Indian scientist and politician who was the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was born on 15 October 1931 at Rameswaram in the state of Tamil Nadu, India and known as the missile man for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He was granted the Padma Bhushan (1981), the Padma Vibhushan (1990) and the Bharat Ratna (1997) India’s highest civilian awards for his contributions in modernizing government defense technology. He died of a heart attack on July 27, 2015.